Engineering and environmental survey
The need for research is explained by the fact that the progressive growth of anthropogenic load and its impact on the state of biocenoses, as well as the current legislative acts and regulations on the protection of the environment and natural resources, determine the need for geological and ecological research in the planned construction to assess the sustainability of the functioning of ecosystems and their components.
The purpose of engineering and environmental surveys is a preliminary assessment of the current ecological state and forecast of possible changes in the environment associated with the construction and operation of construction facilities, in order to prevent and minimize possible negative consequences, as well as to obtain the initial data for drawing up the EP section (environmental protection) in the construction project.
In engineering and environmental surveys, the main research objectives are:
- assessment of the current state of the natural environment under existing forms of economic activity and sanitary and epidemiological situation on the construction site
- predictive assessment of the state of the natural environment and the sanitary and epidemiological situation during the operation of facilities
- recommendations for the development of environmental protection measures
The method of work is being developed in accordance with the Rules of Construction SP 11-102-97 «Engineering and environmental surveys for construction» and the customer’s terms of reference of the planned construction. Based on the natural characteristics of the territory, as well as the nature and degree of anthropogenic impact, the following set of works is carried out to determine the current ecological state of the construction area:
- collection, processing and analysis of published and fund materials and data on the state of the natural environment, search for analogue objects functioning in similar conditions
- ecological photo delineation of aerospace materials using various types of surveys
- traversing with a componentwise description of the natural environment and landscapes in general, the state of terrestrial and groundwater ecosystems, sources and signs of pollution
- excavation of mine workings to obtain environmental information
- geoecological testing and assessment of soil and ground contamination, surface and ground waters, atmospheric air
- research and assessment of the radiation environment
- laboratory chemico-analytical research; composition of soils and grounds, surface and ground waters, (determination of the content of toxic elements, heavy metals, radionuclides, residual amounts of pesticides, oil products, mineral substances in soils, ground, surface and ground waters), parasitological studies of soil (determination of the presence of helminths in soils)
- observation of plant and animal life